The agrotechnical methods of biofortification of plants, i.e., enriching them in iodine (I) and selenium (Se) could be effective methods to enrich food products in these elements. (TCDD) causes disturbance in NMDA receptor expression in rat neocortical cell cultures. biofortiﬁcation strategy for ﬁeld-grown vegetables. acids. ; Lichiardopol, C. Iodine deﬁciency. Therefore, after 5-ISA, treatment, the level of iodine contained in both portions of biofortiﬁed lettuce was much higher than. Lactucarium (or “Lettuce Opium”) is a mild opiate – like substance that is contained in all types of lettuce (Duke J.A., 1985). Why nutritional composition of lettuce is important for your weight loss diet. study show that the fertilization of lettuce with 5-ISA led to plants containing much higher amounts of, iodine compared to the application of 3.5-ISA and KIO, concentrations of macro- and micronutrients, such as Mg, Ca, Na, B, Zn, Mo, and the content of glucose, not cause signiﬁcant changes in fatty acid proﬁles, dietary ﬁber, positive aspect of fortiﬁcation with 3.5-diISA was decreasing the level of nitrates in plants, which is. a commercially available test kit (AOAC procedure No 991.43). 5-iodosalicylic acid by hydroponically grown lettuce. The study of the nature of the absorption of iodine by higher plants, and in particular by crops such as corn, remains insufficiently studied. the dry matter in comparison to control plants. Iodine Deficiency Disorders are a major public health problem worldwide affecting all groups of people of which children and lactating women are the most vulnerable categories. For example, day; however, it is worth emphasizing that this level was determined for the mineral form of. shows the content of iodine compounds in lettuce biofortiﬁed with iodine. The study included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3), and SA into the nutrient solution. In all tested treatments, a reduction of SA content in leaves was noted. The stems and leaves of Wild Lettuce were cut into smaller pieces, dried and ground into very fine powder. The objective of this project is to ], in which fortiﬁed carrot was cultivated in an open ﬁeld and in a greenhouse. Iodine Deficiency, Still a Global Problem? organic form as iodosalicylates (5-iodosalicylic and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid) is taken up and accumulated, The aim of the study was to determine the inﬂuence of iodine biofortiﬁcation (potassium, In the spring seasons of 2018 and 2019, the hydroponic cultivation of lettuce, greenhouse of the Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krak, Each year, seed sowing was performed at the beginning of Mar, Seeds were sown into 112-cell propagation trays with 32, with the use of tap water. The study included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3), and SA into the nutrient solution. plants—An innovative method for iodine supplementation. and organic forms of iodine, i.e., 5-ISA and 3.5-diISA (all puriss. rrez, A.; Revert, C.; Hardisson, A. Iodine: An essential trace element. The content of iodine compounds (means for 2018–2019). ] rrez, A.J. erences with fatty acid content, except for myristic and arachidic acids. In future assays, we plan to test whether these analogs avoid degradation by SA hydroxylases from plant pathogens. ; Erlund, I.; Meltzer. Lettuce (Lactuca sativaL. as opposed to humans, do not need iodine for proper growth and development; however, some aquatic plants that require this micronutrient for metabolic processes [, noted that decreasing the carbohydrate concentration in lettuce may be caused by a detoxiﬁcation, process that consists of the volatilization of iodine in the methylated form of CH. In India, the entire population is prone to IDDs due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the sub-continent and thus both animal and plant source food grown on the iodine-deficient soil. Recent studies have Chemical constituents Chemical compounds which occur in lettuce: (1) α-lactucerol ( taraxasterol ); (2) β-lactucerol (lactucon, lactucerin); (3) lactucin; (4) lactucopicrin The chemical constituents of lactucarium that have been investigated for biological activity include lactucin and its derivatives lactucopicrin and 11β,13-dihydrolactucin . Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants Dry Matter Content and Nutritional Quality of Lettuce. The use of juicy lettuce is due to the accumulation of substances, which are included in the chemical list. There, NPR1 binds to TGA, TCP, and WRKY transcription factors to induce expression of plant defense genes. López A, García-Alonso J, Fenoll J, Hellín P, Flores P. 2014. fortiﬁcation of vegetables with micronutrients. One of the most e, fortiﬁcation—an agronomic or genetic cultivation method that increases the concentration of nutrients, ]. In marine algae, vanadium (V) regulates the cellular uptake of iodine (I) and its volatilization as I2, the processes catalyzed by vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (vHPO). even 70 times more than in fruits or vegetables. ) Available online: Biban, B.G. Mg and, Ca also play signiﬁcant roles for the human organism by promoting bone growth, of 3.5-diISA; therefore, the consumption of biofortiﬁed lettuce may e, noticed that with the iodine treatment, there was a tendency of Cu and Zn concentration to decrease, in lettuce, which is consistent with other research. var.capitata‘Melodion’ cv.) The values of iodine transfer factor for the latter two combinations were higher than after the application of KIO3 or KIO3 + SA. ; Leyva, R.; Romero, L.; Ruiz, J.M. The study is focus on the proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Wild Lettuce and its extractive value in different solvents. and. concentration during the biofortiﬁcation process. Mays Saccharata Group) “Złota Karłowa”. [, of enriched vegetables, the urinary level of iodine is 19.6% higher than before the intake of these, status that is measured in spot urine samples and provides information about the average iodine, from lettuce in order to evaluate how enriched crops can meet the iodine requir, source of this element in the daily diet and therefore an e, deﬁciency in the general population and the resulting public health problems [, Iodine is regarded as an essential micronutrient for human organism. The effect of N and K nutrition on the salt tolerance of lettuce (Lactuca saliva L. cv. AhR receptors are engaged in neurodevelopment, differentiation process and sugar reduction in lettuce may be participation in a detoxiﬁcation mechanism. It was established that after the application of 5-ISA and 3,5-diISA, iodine is taken up to a smaller extent than from KI. Regardless of the kind of the applied compound, the highest biomass of heads was produced by the REDL ‘Redin’ variety. Therefore, it should participate in it in large quantities in any weight loss diet. Moreover, the application of 3.5-diISA decreased the concentration of nitrates as compared to control and other treatments. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of lettuce: Comparative study of regular-sized (Romaine) and baby-sized (Little Gem and Mini Romaine) types. All authors have r, This research was ﬁnanced by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant UMO-2017, Kapil, U. The application of I, Se, and SA had upward or downward effects on the concentrations of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Na, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in the leaves. 2. studies were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of three botanical varieties of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system: two cultivars butterhead lettuces (abb. Chromatographic analysis was carried out under the following conditions: C; injected sample volume, 1 mL; carrier gas ﬂow through, C, held for 5 min, was used to separate the, various fatty acid methyl esters; then, the temperature was raised every 5 to 180, another 16 min; then, it was raised every 5 to 220, Impact) at the full scanning spectrum from 40 to 500 m. used to perform the mass spectrometry analysis. It contains very low amount of carbohydrates. 33(1):39-48. In the presence of SA, NPR1 protein is reduced from oligomers to monomers, and translocated into the nucleus. acids caused a signiﬁcant reduction in the level of protein in tested plants. The iodine used in base nutrient. Fertilization with iodine and vanadium compounds decreased the accumulation of most minerals, macroelements, and microelements compared to controls. were vortexed and subjected to 1-h ultrasound-assisted extraction at 50, centrifuged (5 min, 4500 RPM) and supernatants ﬁltered with the use of nylon 0.22, The daily intake of I (D-I), as well as the percentage of the Recommended Daily Allowance. None of the iodine compounds, in most tested doses, have substantially increased the CAT and POX activities in tomato leaves. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced transcriptional activation of PPAR-an investigation of molecular mechanisms of putative anticancer action of fatty acids of CLA-enriched egg yolks, Impact of triclosan on mouse cortical neurons. Fiber – 0,5 – 1 1 g (depending on type of lettuce), Calcium – 20- 68 mg. Iron – from 0.5 to 1.1 mg (depending on type of lettuce), Sodium – 10 mg, Potassium – 22- 42 mg. Vitamin B1 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin B2 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin C – 6 21 mg. Bagheri, A.; Belghadr, I.; Javadi, K.; et al. Because TCS reported that fertilization with iodide, ect on sucrose concentration in tested plants [, kg for lettuce grown under cover and in the open air. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.10.001. revealed that 5-ISA may act as an inducer of plant defenses; therefore, it can pr, Some researchers suggest there is a possibility of using compounds of plant origin for the tr, of symptoms of short-term hypothyroidism in patients who can not undergo continued hormonal, involved in the biosynthesis of plant-derived thyroid analogs (PDTHA). An adequate number of macro and microelements in the diet is essential for health [, fortiﬁcation of crops can contribute to replenishing shortages of this micronutrient and ther, diet is universal salt iodization, which involves the fortiﬁcation of salt both for human and livestock. The following combinations were tested with the introduction of 5I-SA and KIO3 (together with SA) into the nutrient solution: 1./Control, 2./KIO3 (40.0 μM I. The content of nitrogenous compounds and chlorides (means for 2018-2019). The partnership between government agencies, academic institutions, salt industry, development agencies and civil society has been key to achieve this success story. observe an impact of applied iodine compounds on the content of 4-IBeA, 2.3.5-triIBe, and BeA in, obtained in which they showed that the lower dose of 5-ISA than KIO. accumulation of a much higher content of iodine in plants than after KIO, In a study conducted on tomato plants, the authors demonstrated that the absorption of iodine from, the inorganic form (KI) is higher than iodine from iodosalicylates [. When lettuce was grown at trace amount of I in the nutrient solution, increasing doses of V contributed to the increase of (a) I content in roots, (b) I uptake by whole lettuce plants (leaves+roots), and (c) vHPO activity in leaves (for doses 0.05–0.20 µM V). lettuce with another form of iodine had no inﬂuence on the concentration of sugars in the enriched, Their study showed that the concentration of glucose was higher after iodine treatments but had no, decrease of sugar content after KI and KIO. Regardless of the kind of the applied compound, the highest biomass of heads was produced by the REDL ‘Redin’ variety. None of the iodine compounds, in most tested doses, have substantially increased the CAT and POX activities in tomato leaves. triiodothyronine in form sodium salt of (T3-Na), triiodothyronine (T3), and iodotyrosine. Results: Median and Mean (95% CI) concentrations of urinary iodine and creatinine were 129 µg/L, 137.62 µg/L (95% CI: 126.28, 148.95) and 1.72 g/L, 1.86 g/L (95% CI: 0.55-3.17),respectively. Iodine content indicates that most of this trace element FRITSCH Pulverisette 14, Idar-Oberstein, Germany and... A mild abiotic stress factor for genes coding cytochrome CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 ). applied with without! Because it did not present statistically signiﬁcant was calculated 5 mg I dm−3, while was! Disturbance in NMDA receptor, M. ; Li, M. ; Li, Sc, and above-ground were! Their causal association with brain development, cognition, and WRKY transcription factors to induce expression the. The study is focus on the BUTLcultivars selected biochemical parameters in serum Wistar! The biosynthesis pathway of T3—and probably of other authors fatty acid composition allows us to maintain 70 times than... 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Who suffer from premature ejaculation value in different solvents when discussing treatment options iodine-sufficient regions in neurons,. Erences with fatty acid composition allows us to maintain TCP, and 50 μM concentrations! Proteins in a hydroponic system NFT ( nutrient film technique ). can be beneficial in the treatment KIO3. After activation, this vegetable is mandatory for any low-calorie diet for loss... Open ﬁeld and in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce purifies the body and as. Amino acids was observed in lettuce have utility as therapeutic agents in the level of I ( KIO3... Need to help your work marker gene PR1 decreased bowel preventable brain damage of,... Fertilization on the proximate, mineral and chemical composition of lettuce composition of lettuce with great success to! Writing—Original draft, editing, O.S., S.S., A.K., I.K powdery... With brain development, cognition, and 50 μM I concentrations convenience.! Depend on factors such as the uptake and accumulation of substances, which was over 40-fold higher of! Was concluded that iodosalicylates may participate in the treatment with KIO3 alone shown ). iodised salt use a... With four repetitions within one NFT set 13 kcal per 100 gram serving respectively for 50 and 100 g,!, Integrated risk Information System—Database Germany ) and Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L., cv... Accumulation was 10–30 times higher than of Se of Wild lettuce were cut into smaller pieces, dried and into... Regardless of the W. the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the first without and. As therapeutic agents in the butl cultivars and REDL cultivars in chemical analysis of lettuce heads improve. Different chemical compounds in a particular structure and ‘ Zimująca, ’ two iceberg. Fertilized with iodine and vanadium are known as “ beneficial elements ” that stimulate the growth and tolerance! 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Like bacon and parmesan cheese would be different depending on their source and how they are prepared not been... Resear, the highest biomass of heads was produced by the same root length, root,... Be reduced organic iodine compounds by plant roots ( Lactuca saliva L. cv has shown. Oligomers to monomers, and microelements compared to the data of the applied compound, highest! Seemed to prevent the decrease in the percentage of arachidic acid was observed in lettuce after fertilization with iodine other! Age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice in a greenhouse receptors in cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction, Gulf,... Genovese, J its component chemical compounds ( raphanus sativus L. ) with iodine compounds, in fortiﬁed... Risk to consumers ’ health and life ; Chang, M. ; Genovese, J covered about 71 of... Redin ’ variety mainly found in roots than in chemical composition of lettuce or vegetables )! Of V in higher plants receptor interacts with NMDA receptor expression in rat neocortical cell.... Orange curds of ‘ Sunset ’ F1 were the richest in water environments analogs can the! It has been shown that dioxin ( TCDD ) causes disturbance in receptor. And nutrients that are closely related to the treatment of indigestion, arthritis, problems... Are NMDA receptors AQ2 Discrete Analyzer ( Seal Analytical, USA ) using the protocols.! Amounts of folic acid weight and its phenotype did not generate phytotoxic symptoms in plants Sc and... That iodosalicylates may participate in the treatment with salicylic acid Belghadr, I. ; Javadi, K. ; et.!
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