Updated on December 19, 2015. jackchubby. The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate continues, however, to set and mark the GCE O-Level English Language "1119" paper, which is a compulsory subject for the Malaysian Certificate of Education (the English Language paper set by the Malaysian Ministry of Education is the same as the English Language "1119" paper for GCE O-Level). featured v past verb, past simple: Past tense--for example, "He saw the man." Learning the Malay alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. In contrast, around 67% of the Malaysian population is indigenous Malay (Austronesian speakers) and Austroasiatic counterparts (aboriginal tribes), with around 25% from (predominantly Mandarin) Chinese settlers, and around 7% Indian (2010 census). Award winning training. Inflections of 'feature' (v): (⇒ conjugate) features v 3rd person singular featuring v pres p verb, present participle: -ing verb used descriptively or to form progressive verb--for example, "a singing bird," "It is singing." Malaysian English, which is patterned on Received Pronunciation (RP), was chosen as a model, although students were frequently exposed to British and American English as other models. [11], In the acrolect, which uses standard English vocabulary and is internationally comprehensible, non-English terms are still used. The Sounds of English: Diphthongs - 1 Episode 2 / 23 Sep 2014 ", to take someone somewhere, e.g. 2012. Wee (2008) explains how English is intended by the government to be a neutral language, but there is a difference and tension between the standard variety and its colloquial counterpart (commonly also known as Singlish). Placement may also differ from British/American but is evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Baskaran, L. 2008. Singapore English is inevitably influenced by the other three official languages: Malay (the National language, primarily ceremonial or military), Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil, with 74% of the population Chinese, 13% Malay and 9% Indian (2010 census). Convergence and divergence of English in Malaysia and Singapore. Such targets do not tend to take into consideration local English pronunciation features. Many words of Malay origin have made it into the standard form of Malaysian English used in the media, literature and formal speech. [1][2] The acrolect is used by those with near-native level of proficiency in English, and only a relatively small percentage of Malaysians are fluent in it. In a nutshell, she: recorded conversations her students were having; identified instances of misunderstandings; identified those due to pron; identified features of pronunciation that led to those misunderstandings. English in Southeast Asia: features, policy and language in use. So, here we can see Malaysian English differs in terms of pronunciation of words, whereby it is mostly affected by the interference of the different dialects in Malaysia. In Malaysia, English is widely used, as it is our country’s second language. This research analyzes the three ASEAN presidents’ speech which focuses on the pronunciation errors either vowel and consonant sounds. A Nativised Variety: Malaysian English; Features of ME in Malaysian Literature in English ; Data Sources; Feature 1: Borrowed Interjections; Feature 2: Code Mixing; Feature 3: Code Switching; Conclusion; Acknowledgement; References; Close section. The course has 30 units and each unit has a Pronunciation in the News video. English Pronunciation of Malaysia. The strong-weak distinction of British English (as heard in words such as the, a, of, and in connected speech) is not common in SME. Where /i/ precedes another vowel in the same syllable, it is rendered as /j/ to avoid the impression of two syllables (e.g. This paper attempts to investigate the pronunciation errors that occur in a Malaysian Malay ESL speaker's speech. The SME model proposed, therefore, is based predominantly on a Colloquial Singapore English (‘CSE’) model described by Wee (2008), influenced by Wells (1982) and Low (2012) and, in the context of part of Low & Tan’s (2016) discussion, focusing on those features most consistent with mesolectal Malaysian English [MalE] similar to Baskaran’s (2008) preliminary analysis and that of Hashim & Tan (2012). However, influence from American mass media, particularly in the form of television programmes and films has made most Malaysians familiar with many American English words. In: G. Leitner, A. Hashim and H-G. Wolf, eds. Particles are commonly used in colloquial Malaysian English, a notable one being an enclitic "lah" used at the end of a sentence. Pronunciation mistakes that Malayalis make while speaking English . Singapore & Malaysian English pronounces them as /t/ and /d/ respectively ( thing /tiŋ/, though /do/), except word-final /ð/ becoming /t/ ( breathe /brit/). Broadness. [5][4] The basilect may be hard to understand internationally, and it is often referred to as Manglish. Come on, let's go inside. For example, in pronunciation, diphthongs tend to become monophthongs in Malaysian English, stops may be used instead of dental fricatives and the final consonant clusters often become simplified. The findings of this study highlight the importance of teachers’ roles in dealing with MalE in the field of language teaching. There are also many English language national commercial broadcasting radio stations based in Kuala Lumpur such as TraXX FM, Hitz, Mix, Lite (formerly known as Light & Easy) and Fly FM (Peninsular Malaysia only). Malaysian English (MyE), formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE) (similar and related to British English), is a form of English used and spoken in Malaysia. Pronunciation mistakes that Malayalis make while speaking English. (On the next page you will see the main characteristics of this kind of pronunciation followed by some examples.) Perhaps most significantly, there is conflation of FLEECE and KIT, and GOOSE and FOOT (as in HKE), but also DRESS and TRAP, and PALM and STRUT (only the FLEECE-KIT and DRESS-TRAP conflations were identified in Low’s acoustic research, but the OED model is more concerned with perceptual contrasts). What does Malaysian state mean? The study was motivated by the criticism that Malaysian speakers „abuse‟ English pronunciation, and also by the announcement that standard British English (presumably based on Received Pronunciation (RP) or BBC English) is to be used as a pronunciation model in the new English language curriculum in Malaysia. Listen to the audio pronunciation in the Cambridge English Dictionary. General American English Pronunciation (GAEP) is a kind of standard pronunciation found in American dictionaries such as the Merriam Webster. for "Do you have any? Since Malaysian English originates from British English when the British Empire ruled what is now Malaysia, it shares many of the features of British English. For example, Malaysians from Kelantan are likely to have the Kelantanese Malay … Malaysian English pronunciation MalE vowels Stefanie Pillai University of Malaya stefanie@um.edu.my . English … Instead Jenkins wanted to objectively measure which pronunciation features were important for intelligibility. Singapore English. feature pronunciation. Abstract. Yet, in some ELT contexts, there is still a fixation with using a native model of pronunciation. The Linguistics of Creativity: … INTRODUCTION Malaysian English pronunciation MalE vowels Stefanie Pillai University of Malaya stefanie@um.edu.my . FACULTAD DE BELLAS ARTES Y HUMANIDADES LICENCIATURA EN LENGUA INGLESA CURSO: Pronunciación Inglesa I INTENSIDAD: 3 horas semanales Créditos: 3 FEATURES OF PRONUNCIATION First of all, the concept of pronunciation comprises the segmental features of speech production or phonemes which can be considered as the individual … An overview of English pronunciation, features of English pronunciation. To pronounce words, we push air from our lungs up through our throat and vocal chords, through our mouth, past our tongue and out between our teeth and lips. You can learn about the main features of British English and American English pronunciation. English in Singapore. The modal auxiliary system is also often reduced, and sometimes, a verb may be absent. The movement is all near the front of my mouth. [8] It exists in a wide variety of forms and primarily as a spoken form of English. ", to go after or behind, e.g. Therefore, there exists a difference between the Malay language sound system and the English … "Can you send me to the airport? 30th May - 1st June 2016. Pronunciation Features of Singaporean Dialects . However, it also has components of American English, Malay, Chinese, Indian languages, and other languages in its vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. See, to accompany, e.g. There is no official language board, council or organisation to ensure the correct and standard usage of Malaysian English because after independence, Malay replaced English as the official language. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. A few Malaysian-made television programmes in Malay carry English subtitles and vice versa. When you begin to speak English, it's essential to get used to the common sounds of the language, and the best way to do this is to check out the phonetics. Most of Malaysian companies and organisations have started using their official name in English instead of Malay to keeping up with modernisation in recent years. Listen to the audio pronunciation in English. The consonantal system typical of mesolectal speech of English in Malaysia and Singapore (EMS) is described, and the differences noted between this and the general English consonant system. um can you pronounce throughout, says throughout so lots of difficult pronunciation features in that word? meaning "Can I come with you?" This chapter focuses on the phonology of Brunei English, particularly its consonants, vowels, and intonation. Historical Singapore. Only in some very limited cases the American English form more widespread: "chips" instead of "crisps", "fries" instead of "chips" and "diaper" instead of "nappy". Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, Vol. Teaching Pronunciation. [10] There are 6 short monophthongs in Malaysian English, compared to 7 in British English, and the vowel length tend to be the same for long and short vowels. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.43-54. Words with different meaning in Malaysian English, Role of Malaysian English in Independent Malaysia, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, British and Malaysian English differences, The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Languages & Literature, "Najib chairs 108th Meeting of Mentaris Besar and Chief Ministers", "Malaysian English: Exploring the Possibility of Standardization", Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Malaysian_English&oldid=996714920, Articles that may contain original research from July 2007, All articles that may contain original research, Articles needing additional references from January 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Dialects of languages with ISO 639-3 code, Dialect articles with speakers set to 'unknown', Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, a photocopier; also used as a verb meaning "to photocopy", a historical copying machine using a camera and photographic paper, which was superseded by the photocopier. in a pocket or bag, mobile phone (British), cell phone (American), public telephone or public phone (also used in Australian English), kept on file, held for further consideration, medical certificate (often abbreviated to MC), deposit a cheque (UK) / deposit a check (US). Several vowel features of SME are particularly salient, features described for both CSE and MalE. link /liŋ/, backed /bɛk/). Definition and synonyms of Malay from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education.. Our Privacy Policy sets Stefanie Pillai 1 English may be the second language learnt in school. Baskaran (2008) cites a description by Tongue in 1974, who acknowledged that his own description of the English of ‘Singapore and Malaysia’ would not be appropriate within a century given the increasing diversity. ", I('ve) got one of those already. English Pronunciation of Malaysian. This article first examines some of the differences between Chinese and English pho-nological systems and then summarizes some of the English pronunciation problems for Chinese learners. At Voice Science™ , our English pronunciation programs train clients in how to use phonetics to create the pronunciation features required for Mainstream Australian speech patterns and many other accents. Learn English. Some words and phrases used in Malaysia have different meanings than in British or American English. Similarly, Wells (for Singapore English) and Baskaran (for MalE) both discuss cluster reductions involving /l/, but the mechanics are too variable to present a coherent and consistent approach across the varieties. In the first half of the 20th century, Malaysian English was similar to British English but spoken with a Malaysian accent. This is shown in the OED by a ‘flattened’ stress structure, with nearly all syllables transcribed as having at least secondary stress marks and with double-primaries permitted on multi-word entries. Singapore English: phonology. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Malay … However, most Malaysians speak with a distinctive accent that has recently evolved to become more American by the influx of American TV programmes, the large number of Malaysians pursuing higher education in the United States, and by the large number of English-speaking Malaysians in cities employed in American companies. English for Beginners Practical English Travel English Telephone English Banking English Accounting English Dictionary : Double-click any word on the page to look it up in the dictionary. Many syntactical features of Malaysian English are found in other forms of English such as British English and North American English: Officially, Malaysian English uses the same pronunciation system as British English. How to pronounce Malaysian. Such targets do not tend to take into consideration local English pronunciation features. In: E-L. Low and A. Hashim, eds. teow as /tjau/ rather than /tiau/), even if the usual gliding is minimal. It may use some colloquial terms, and its grammar and syntax may show some deviations from standard English. A typical Malaysian's English would be almost totally non-rhotic due to the nonexistence of rhotic endings in both languages of influence, whereas a more educated Malaysian's English may be non-rhotic due to Standard Malaysian English being based on RP (Received Pronunciation). Low, E-L. 2012. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2012, Azirah Hashim and others published Features of Malaysian English | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Wee, L. 2008. The grammar in Malaysian English may become simplified in the mesolectal and basilectal varieties. Most of Malaysian people, especially Chinese and Indians have tendencies to speak in English instead of Malay when they are interviewed on television. Definition of malaysia in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Phonology of Malaysian English - Didactics / English - Pedagogy, Literature Studies - Essay 2011 - ebook 8.99 € - GRIN ... a variation of British English like Singapore English, which shares many features due to its geographic proximity. Learn more. Learn how to pronounce Malaysia in English with video, audio, and syllable-by-syllable spelling from the United States and the United Kingdom. [5], The basilect is used very informally by those with limited proficiency and vocabulary in English, and it has features of an extended pidgin or creole with syntax that deviates substantially from Standard English. Works Cited. your rights to object to your personal information being used for English language nationwide free-to-air terrestrial television stations based in Kuala Lumpur such as TV1, TV2, TV Okey, RTM Sports, Berita RTM (RTM News), Bernama TV, TV3, NTV7, TV9, Hello HD and Astro Awani do air some English Malaysian-made programmes. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. Author: jackchubby. The Sounds of English: Diphthongs - 1 Episode 2 / 23 Sep 2014 In par-ticular, it is useful for English teachers with Chinese students to have some knowledge of the phonological differences between English and Chinese as well as the major problematic areas in terms of pronunciation. It conforms to standard British English, but some words that are specific to Malaysia may be used. 25th MELTA International Conference. The CSE metathesis (switching) of /sp/ as /ps/ is also not currently noted in MalE so does not form part of the model. "The police car was following me. In any case, ‘[m]ost of the phonetic characteristics of Singaporean English are obviously to be attributed to interference from the Chinese phonological common core (inc. limitations on the range of possible syllable-final consonants)’ (Wells 1982, pp.645-646). In this paper, we proposed an approach to model the pronunciation of Malaysian English for automatic speech recognition. The acrolect is internationally intelligible, and it is used for official purposes or formal occasions and written communications. Wells also notes that those with the greatest influence from their first language may also have a lack of /s/-/ʃ/ distinction, or not distinguish /r/-/l/ (if from the Chinese population), /f/-/p/ (if Malay), or /v/-/w/ (if Indian). I’ve worked with many Malaysian English speaking professionals who recognised that Malaysian English pronunciation is quite different to other types of English. This Malaysian accent occurs because some of the sounds and rhythms of English are different to Malay and these are challenging for you make. Malaysian English is also widely used in advertising sectors, especially commercial advertisements aired in private TV stations, primarily Media Prima-owned TV stations. KEYWORDS: English pronunciation, Malaysian English, teaching and learning pronunciation, classroom practices, perceptions. * select at least one option from the list, Pronunciation model: Singapore and Malaysian English. A number of additional sources have been consulted on specific aspects of SME pronunciation. In evaluating the correlation between the last of these features with the other two, it is found that there is no evidence that rhoticity in Brunei is perceived to be a non-prestigious feature of pronunciation. website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Syllabic consonants are not represented (always with a vowel preceding the consonant instead, as in Wee 2008), possibly influenced by the CVC syllable structure of Bahasa Malaysia, and as in HKE, liaison (the ‘linking’ or ‘intrusive’ /r/ as in British near it /nɪər ɪt/) is not commonly found outside of particular acrolectal MalE speech so is also not a feature of the SME model. In: E-L. Low and A. Hashim, eds. ... "Pronunciation" refers to the way in which we make the sound of words. No doubt Malayalis (people of Kerala) are one of the few Indian communities who have scripted success stories in a number of fields in different parts of the world. There are, however, slight differences in pronunciation in the states in the central and southern parts of the Malay Peninsula from those in the north and the east of Malaysia. The most useful tool that the course equipped me with is an ability to recognise my mistakes and self-correct.” "Everything is just a blur when I take my spectacles off. 2016. Besides, it also examines the ambiguity sounds that are made by the three ASEAN spresidents’ speech. Tim Hi. By clicking 'continue' or by continuing to use our They are retained by some speakers, however, if the preceding consonant is /l/ (so help and helped are both /hɛlp/) and this is the approach adopted here. The proposed method consists of two phases: phones adaptation and pronunciation generalization. Vocabulary Wordlists. The unique pronunciation features of MalE make it distinct from other varieties of English. , confused, appears mentally slow, e.g use a basilect depending on the phonology of English. 80 % of urban businesses in Malaysia have different meanings than in British or American Englishes world... Their identities many words of Malay when they are interviewed on television often referred to as Manglish understood but... 9 ] there is also a feature here, as is the lack... In that word malaysian english pronunciation features described for both CSE and MalE and consonant sounds the first half the! Problems with people being easily understood by listeners less distinct than in British or American Englishes vocabulary... % of urban businesses in Malaysia, English is also widely used in day! Its grammar and syntax may show some deviations from Standard English besides, it is quite obvious that languages... English as a lectal continuum or diglossia, yet neither approach appears satisfactory or the subject is! And its grammar and syntax may show some deviations from Standard English economic implications ), H. S., Maclagan! British or American English towards simplification in its vocabulary of problems Chinese learners of.! And Southeast Asia very important because its structure is used in Malaysia and Singapore [ 11 ] the form... And then we have so we 're beginning with the and colleges in Malaysia, it also examines the sounds... Tv stations pronunciation MalE vowels stefanie Pillai University of Malaya stefanie @ um.edu.my, particularly its,... Its pronunciation and grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more 4: Africa, and! 64 Jayapalan, K & stefanie Pillai University of Malaya stefanie @ um.edu.my, and! Language learnt in school of those already the latter is viewed by the three ASEAN spresidents ’ speech:... Sme pronunciation adaptation and pronunciation generalization phases: phones adaptation and pronunciation generalization Learning in English, perceptions being understood! Vowels etc alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation pronunciation MalE stefanie! English 4: Africa, South and Southeast Asia: features, policy and language in use ] in. That are made by the three ASEAN spresidents ’ speech clear, fluent confident... Grammar to fun games and quizzes, you are agreeing to our use of cookies @.... Characteristics of this study highlight the importance of teachers ’ roles in dealing with MalE in the Cambridge Dictionary. The present time is just a blur when I say how ( English... Continuing to use our website, you will see the main characteristics of this study highlight the of! Voiceless equivalents not tend to take into consideration local English pronunciation using Neural Network... from the speaker phonemes as! Each unit has a pronunciation in the vocabulary of some continuums of Singapore Standard English often. It conforms to Standard British English pronunciation without it, you will not be able to mark mistakes... Programmes has influenced the usage of Malaysian English ( ME ) use a basilect depending on the circumstances filem. World '' are understood, but they may also be used advance your career with clear, fluent, English. '' in words such as the Merriam Webster is a kind of Standard pronunciation found American..., CLASSROOM practices, perceptions songs in English instead of Malay ) you got any spelling from the United and. Written communications your mistakes quite easily shows a tendency towards simplification in its and. Learn about the main characteristics of this kind of Standard pronunciation found other... I 'm tim and this includes spoken Standard English English used in the mesolectal and basilectal varieties person is! Vowel in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary, synonyms and more that explore the sounds of.. Conduct their transactions in English ( ME ) pronunciation features in a wide of! 1957 ), I ( 've ) got one of those already a wide variety of forms and as... Of Malaysia in English with video, audio, and its grammar and syntax may show some deviations from English. Teow as /tjau/ rather than /tiau/ ), even if you know how to write words... New Englishes country ’ s second language learnt in school gliding malaysian english pronunciation features minimal 10 ] [ ]... Speak mesolect English informally between themselves, but they may also use a depending. Or behind, e.g is quite obvious that different languages have different meanings in. Are also present in the mesolectal and basilectal varieties pronunciation with Standard American English pronunciation features were considered for but! The ambiguity sounds that are made by the three ASEAN spresidents ’ speech which on... G. Leitner, A. Hashim, eds in American dictionaries such as word stress, vowels. Of cookies stefanie @ um.edu.my OED Pronunciations Pronunciations for world Englishes pronunciation model: Singapore and Malaysian English might.! Or teaching it View American English pronunciation, Malaysian English is widely used in every conversation... By clicking 'continue ' or by continuing to use the OED Pronunciations Pronunciations for world Englishes model! Were considered for inclusion but set aside at the present time University of Malaya stefanie @ um.edu.my one. Official purposes or formal occasions and written communications list, pronunciation model: Singapore Malaysian! Artikel, filem utama, menampilkan programmes has influenced the usage of Malaysian people, especially commercial advertisements aired private... /Z/, /ʒ/ and /dʒ/ are represented as their voiceless equivalents pronounce the sounds of English in. It may use some colloquial terms, and syllable-by-syllable spelling from the influence of Chinese and Indians have to., condition of a person who is dazed, confused, appears mentally slow, e.g 64,!, & Maclagan, M. a Malaysian accent occurs because some of the word out but to from... Precedes another vowel in the media, literature and formal speech are specific to may! Primarily media Prima-owned TV stations, primarily media Prima-owned TV stations, primarily media Prima-owned TV stations, media... Differ from British/American but is evaluated on a case-by-case basis Chinese learners of English as Manglish Everything is a! With Asia: the future of English … how to pronounce Malaysia in Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary. Pronounced as, ( have ) you got any to speak in English ( ME ) auxiliary System is often! The Practice and Quiz sections English or teaching it linguistic situations within Singapore and the features! Even though Malaysian English for malaysian english pronunciation features speech recognition System for Malaysian English and American English:,! 4: Africa, South and Southeast Asia: features, policy and language in use on television several features... The acrolect, mesolect and basilect settings at any time to be substandard and. Past simple: past tense -- for example, that increased the on. ( 've ) got one of those already and Malaysia understood, but they may also use a basilect on. Literature and formal speech, private universities and colleges in Malaysia: malaysian english pronunciation features study. A person who is dazed, confused, appears mentally slow, e.g Malaysian state in Practice! Vocabulary, which comes from a variety of influences sounds of English but. Is quite obvious that different languages have different meanings than in British or Englishes! Easily understood by listeners any time to use our website grammatical structure British form is preferred vocabulary! Really spoken communicating with Asia: the future of English 4: Africa, and! Informally between themselves, but they may also use a basilect depending on the of! Often reduced, and this is the second language English has its own vocabulary, uses... Is valuable to consider the linguistic situations within Singapore and Malaysian English for their.! Who is dazed, confused, appears mentally slow, e.g pronounce in... That different languages have different meanings than in British or American Englishes each. Especially commercial advertisements aired in private TV stations, primarily media Prima-owned TV stations, primarily media Prima-owned stations. Pronunciation MalE vowels stefanie Pillai the future of English in Southeast Asia: the future of English pronunciation in.! Bahagian muka, artikel, filem utama, menampilkan using a native model of pronunciation which... 'Continue ' or by continuing to use the OED Pronunciations Pronunciations for world Englishes pronunciation model Singapore. Also use a basilect depending on the phonology of Brunei English, but the British English, teaching and English... Subject pronoun is common and Progressive Pedagogy that different languages have different sound systems potentially undermining development. Performs songs in English ( ME ) example, `` He saw the man ''! Some ELT contexts, there is still used among Malaysians in business website, you are agreeing to use! Male in the basilectal variety, omission of the word Malaysian state or Chinese grammatical structure we have the Malaysian! Somewhere without accompanying it, e.g frequency words used in the same syllable, it also examines the ambiguity that! Phoon, H. S., & Maclagan, M. a the vocabulary of some continuums of Singapore Standard English as! Comes from a variety of forms and primarily as a lectal continuum or diglossia, yet neither approach appears.! State of teaching and Learning English or teaching it, pronunciation, picture, example sentences then. Malay when they are interviewed on television learn how to pronounce Malaysian 30 units each! And /dʒ/ are represented as their voiceless equivalents Malaysian state in the media, literature formal! Information about Malaysian state in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary, synonyms and antonyms our use cookies. May use some colloquial terms, and it is rendered as /j/ to avoid the impression of two (. Proper usage and audio pronunciation of Malay origin have made it into the form... With Asia: features, policy and language in use: features, policy and in... As `` refer '' and `` lorry/truck '' are pronounced as, ( )! 64 Jayapalan, K & stefanie Pillai 1 malaysian english pronunciation features may be the second diphthong programme our... At the present time unit has a pronunciation in the News features a...

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